Speed control of ultrasonic motors (USM) needs to be precise, fast, and robust; however, this becomes a challenging task due to the nonlinear behavior of these motors including nonlinear response, pull-out phenomenon, and speed hysteresis. However, linear controllers would be suboptimal and unstable, and nonlinear controllers would require expert knowledge, expensive online calculations, or costly model estimation. In this paper, we propose a model-free nonlinear offline controller that can significantly mitigate these challenges. Using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms, a neural network speed controller was optimized. A soft actor-critic (SAC) DRL algorithm was chosen due to its sample efficiency, fast convergence, and stable learning. To ensure controller stability, a custom control Lyapunov reward function was proposed. The steady-state USM behavior was mathematically modeled for easing controller design under simulation. The SAC agent was designed and trained first in simulation and then further trained experimentally. The experimental results support that the trained controller can successfully expand speed operation range ([0, 300] rpm), plan optimal control trajectories, and stabilize performance under varying load torque and temperature drift.
Publication: IEEE Access (28 April 2022)
Title: Robust speed control of ultrasonic motors based on Deep Reinforcement learning of a Lyapunov function
Authors: Abdullah MUSTAFA*, Tatsuki SASAMURA and Takeshi MORITA