FUKUDA, Kenji / Professor / Division of Environmental Studies
Department of Natural Environmental Studies / / Stress physiology of trees/ Ecology of fungi in forest ecosystem/ Tree health diagnosis and tree care

Career Summary
1986: Graduated, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Tokyo
1988: Master of Agriculture from The University of Tokyo
1988: Research Associate, The University of Tokyo
1991: PhD (Agriculture) from The University of Tokyo
1996: Lecturer, The University of Tokyo
1998: Associate Professor, The University of Tokyo
2006: Professor, The University of Tokyo
Educational Activities
Graduate School: Evaluation of natural environment, Seminar in natural environmental studies I, II, Practice in Natural environmental studies I, II, Experiment in natural environmental studies I, II, Seminar in bio-environmental studies I, II, Practice in bio-environmental studies I, II, Experiment in bio-environmental studies I, II, Advanced seminar in natural environmental studies I, II, III, Advanced practice in natural environmental studies I, II, III, Advanced experiment in natural environmental studies I, II, III, Advanced seminar in bio-environmental studies I, II, III, Advanced practice in bio-environmental studies, Advanced experiment in bio-environmental studies I, II, III,
Environmental botany (Grad. Sch. of Agric. & Life Sci.), Advanced seminar in forest science (ibid), Advanced practice in forest science (ibid)
Undergraduate Education: Human beings in ecosystems (Fac. of Agric.), Tree health (ibid), Introduction to natural environmental studies (ibid), Tree health studies (Fac. of Agric., Niigata Univ.)
Research Activities
The aim of our study is to evaluate the natural environment from a biological (physiological and ecological) viewpoint. Our research projects focus on stress physiology of trees and ecology of fungi in forest ecosystems. We are also developing technologies for diagnosing and caring for declining trees in urban areas.
So far we have been investigated the physiological mechanism of symptom development in pine wilt disease (4, 8, 10, 12), ecophysiological roles of ectomycorrhizae on pine roots (6, 9) and effect of insecticide spraying for damage control (2).  Recently, we investigated changes in fungal fruitbody flora in Castanopsis forests across the urbanization gradient from Chiba to Tokyo (5), ectomycoorhizal communities along a vegetation succession gradient in abandoned land (7) and along forest regeneration in subalpine fir-wave forest (3), geographical variation of fungal endophyte assemblages in beech and oak leaves (1). We are also conducting some more practical studies, such as developing diagnostic tools, surveying the health of urban trees, and basic studies of reforestation of deserted areas in northwest China (11).
1)Hashizume, Y., Sahashi, N. and Fukuda, K. (2008) The influence of altitude on endophytic mycobiota in Quercus acuta leaves collected in two areas 1000 km apart. Forest Pathol. 38: 218-226.
2)Ugawa, S. and Fukuda, K. (2008) Effect of aerial spraying of insecticide as a control measure of pine wilt disease. Forest Pathol. 38: 16-28.
3)Ugawa, S., Iwamoto, K. and Fukuda, K.(2007) Coexistence of Abies mariesii and A. veitchii in a subalpine fir-wave forest. Can. J. of For. Res. 37: 2142-2152.
4)Fukuda, K., Utsuzawa, S. and Sakaue, D (2007) Correlation between acoustic emission, water status and xylem embolism in pine wilt disease. Tree Physiol. 26: 969-946.
5)Ochimaru, T. and Fukuda, K. (2007) Changes in fungal communities in evergreen broad-leaved forests across a gradient of urban to rural areas in Japan. Can. J. Bot. 37: 247-258.
6)Ugawa, S. and Fukuda, K. (2007) Reduction of diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungal flora caused by damage from pine wilt disease. In: Woodward, S. and Lefort, F. eds.: Alien invasive disease and trade. 57-63, For. Res. Inst., Warsaw Russia.
7)Yamashita, S., Fukuda, K. and Ugawa, S. (2007) Ectomycorrhizal communities on tree roots and in soil propagule banks along a secondary successional vegetation gradient. Forest Science 53: 635-644.
8)Utsuzawa, S., Fukuda, K. and Sakaue, K. (2005) Use of magnetic resonance microscopy for the nondestructive observation of xylem cavitation caused by pine wilt disease. Phytopathology 95: 737-743.
9)Ichihara, Y., Fukuda, K., and Suzuki, K. (2001) Supression of ectomycorrhizal development in young Pinus thunbergii trees inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Forest Pathology 31: 141-147.
10)Ichihara, Y., Fukuda, K., and Suzuki, K. (2000) Early symptom development and histological changes associated with migration of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in seedling tissues of Pinus thunbergii. Plant Disease. 84: 375-380.
11)Fukuda, K., Suzuki, K., Maeda, T., et al. (1999) Vegetation of northern Shaanxii region of Loess Plateau in China and selection of adaptive tree species. In: Can biological production harmonize with environment? 373-376.
12)Fukuda, K. (1999) Physiological process of symptom development in pine wilt disease (review). J. Tree Health 3: 67-74.
Other Activities
Membership of academic societies: Japanse Forest Science Society, Tree Health Society of Japan (board member), The Botanical Society of Japan, Japanese Ecological Society, Japanese Mycological Society, The Society of Vegetation Science, Phytopathological Society of Japan, Root Research Society, IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organizations) Deputy coordinator of a working party `Alien invasive species and world trade'
Social activities: Lecturer of `Integrated course of trees and greening techniques', Editorial board member of `Shinrin-gijutsu', Advisory board member of Kombukuro park in Kashiwa city
Future Plan
"Environmental problems" refers to problems caused when human activities exceed the carrying capacity of natural ecosystems. An ecosystem consists of plants, animals and microorganisms that interact with each other. Evaluation of a natural environment should be based on the functions of the ecosystem and the dynamic interactions of the organisms in it. I wish to establish a new research field, namely "evaluation of natural environment", through performing field- and laboratory studies on forest ecosystems, which have the largest biomass and the richest biodiversity in the terrestrial world. Symbiosis such as mycorrhiza and endophytes and tree ecophysiology are frontier research fields in ecology for gaining an understanding of natural ecosystems. In order to solve environmental problems, functions of natural ecosystems should be clarified by implementing step-by-step modifications, not making dramatic changes based on appealing new theories. We are seeking fundamental solutions to environmental problems through our studies, not an escape or stopgap technologies.
Messages to Students
You should have a broad interest in nature and humanity, and the theme of your research should have a specific focus. Doing research is similar to climbing mountains or growing plants or crops: there are many guidebooks and manuals, but ultimately you must trust your own judgment. You should have observant eyes, intuition combined with highly developed skills acquired through your experiences, the physical and mental toughness to endure solitude, and be open to listen to opposite opinions. After struggling with your own field data, you will gain a new perspective of nature!
I want you to think and act ecologically, not just as a scientist, but also as an ordinary citizen.